Samurai Dave: The Roving Ronin Report

Rambling Narrative of Travels, Thoughts, and Embellishments

Dezomeshiki: FireFighting Japanese Style

Dezomeshiki: FireFighting Japanese Style
The Tokyo Fire Department puts on a blazing show


Japanese Firefighters of the past – Hikeshi – show their stuff

Dezomeshiki – it’s any five year old boy’s dream come in the form of blaring fire engines, fires, firefighters, and piercing fire sirens. Dezomeshiki is an annual event where the Tokyo Fire Department calls together all of its units spread through-out its wide-flung metropolis to put on a review of all of their equipment, vehicles, and techniques.


Modern-day firefighters of the Tokyo area

Children of all ages clamber in and over all the different kinds of firefighting and rescue vehicles. Their wide eyes are filled with awe and wonder which just goes to show that the love and adoration children have for firefighters is the same as it is in other parts of the world.


Children having a ball climbing over red fire engine trucks

Firefighters have long been role models for children – one of the core professions along with policemen, astronauts, doctors, and cowboys that boys want to become when they grow up. Very few boys in Western countries have ever had a Christmas where at least once there wasn’t a bright shiny red fire truck engine under their Christmas Tree.


A young boy clutching his prized fire engine

In Japan, hero-worship of firefighters goes back several centuries. There have been professional fire fighters in Japan since the 17th Century. They were known as hikeshi. The hikeshi were easily identified by their specially-made coats which sported a variety of bold artistic designs.


Hikeshi – fire fighters from Tokyo’s past

There were three kinds of hikeshi during the Edo Period (1603-1867). Those in charge of protecting the Shogun’s castle and samurai residences were known as Jobikeshi and they were part of the samurai class. The Daimyo-Bikeshi had the highest honor as they were chosen amongst the leading samurai by their lords. They protected important public buildings including rice warehouses. However, the true heroes of the masses were the Machi-Bikeshi. The Machi-Bikeshi defended the houses and buildings of the lower classes.


Wooden water handpump and firefighter hood

The Machi-Bikeshi were a rough-and-tumble lot equally admired and feared. They bore tattoos much like modern-day yakuza. They were firefighters and brawlers. Their reputation and clothes made the Machi-Bikeshi popular heroes. Hikeshi were the pin-up darlings of the 18th and 19th Century long before heart-throb firemen were adorning beefcake calendars in the West. They were the subjects of many ukiyoe (wood block print) artists. One of the most famous ukiyoe artists, Hiroshige Ando, came from a family of firefighters and was a fire fighter himself.


Matoi standards were used for identification and communication

In the early 18th Century, Machi-Bikeshi were granted the right to use Matoi, the fire standard used only by the samurai firefighters beforehand. The Matoi are three-dimensional standards used for brigade identification and communication. Each fire brigade had its own specially-designed Matoi and to carry one was seen as a special honor. During a fire, a Matoi bearer would climb onto a roof often that of a burning house to signal their comrades. Matoi bearers of different fire brigades would often race each other to reach the blaze first. Brawls between different fire brigades were not uncommon.


Hikeshi with essential equipment: ladder, hooks, and Matoi standards

Firefighting in old Tokyo – or Edo as it was called then – was a tough business. Given that the vast majority of houses and buildings were made almost entirely of wood, fires were frequent and very destructive at times. Displaying a grim sense of humor, residents referred to their flammable homes and buildings as “Edo no Hana”“the flowers of Edo.”


Fire Towers like this one were used to alert the hikeshi fire brigades

Fire towers were place at certain intervals throughout the city to warn the local areas of impending fires. The towers contained a bell to be struck with a hammer a certain number of times depending on the blaze. A single ring meant a fire in the distance. Two rings signified a closer blaze so the local fire brigade would come together and make the necessary precautions. Continuous rings meant the fire was in the vicinity. The ranks of the fire brigade would be swelled with local volunteers. Then would begin the arduous and desperate task of trying to keep the blaze from spreading.


Ladders were used to help hikeshi to find the fires

Unlike modern firefighters who seek to extinguish fires, the hikeshi’s main task was to pull down buildings near the fire so that the flames would not spread. To accomplish this task, they carried long-handled hooks called tobiguchi. To extinguish flames, hikeshi would use buckets of course but also a type of handpump made of wood called a ryodosui which would shoot out a stream of water by use of a lever.


Firefighters on parade

Ladders called hashigo were carried to give hikeshi mobile lookout points. Since many buildings in old Edo were only two stories high, hikeshi looking to find their way to a fire could set their ladder up against any building and have a quick look about. If there were no buildings, one hikeshi would climb the ladder while their comrades held it tightly with hand and hook. This led to the tradition of nimble hikeshi performing acrobatics atop free-standing ladders.

The quintessential piece of equipment of the hikeshi was their decorative coats known as sashiko. Far from just being fashion statements, they were sophisticated pieces of firefighting technology of the time period. Sashiko were thick multi-layered coats whose making required the efforts of a spinner, weaver, artist, dyer and stitcher. Before action the sashiko were wetted down allowing firefighters and Matoi bearers to get closer to the flames, Along with the coats, fire fighters had gloves, hats, and hoods made of the same multi-layered material.

Although Edo/Tokyo suffered from many fires over the years, there is no doubt that the hikeshi were effective in preventing the city from being entirely consumed by flames on numerous of occasions.


Fire fighter in a special suit for chemical hazards

While the main purpose of the Dezomeshiki is to showcase the equipment and abilities of modern firefighting in Tokyo, the old hikeshi practically steal the show. Dezomeshiki begins with a few obligatory speeches from noted officials that can be safely missed then members of various units proudly parade by followed by firefighting and rescue vehicles of land, sea, and air.

After the parade, – the moment many have waited for – the hikeshi come on. Several hashigo ladders are put up supported by the arms and hooks of the hikeshi members. Several Hikeshi climb to the top of the free-standing ladder where they perform a number of acrobatic moves. Sometimes they will perch atop the ladder with only one leg wrapped around the pole. Other times they will “jump” off the side while holding onto the ladder’s side. The hikeshi acrobats make it look easy but there have been injuries and even deaths in the past.


A Hikeshi showing off his acrobatic abilities

After their performance, the audience might feel compelled to leave but this would be a mistake. Afterwards, Dezomeshiki kicks it into high gear resembling a Hollywood movie set. The Tokyo Fire Department puts on some realistic demonstrations of emergencies situations and responses from house fires, earthquakes, chemical hazards, and sea rescues.

These demonstrations serve to ensure the people of Tokyo that fire and rescue operation units are well trained and ready at a moment’s notice. Tokyo has seen its fair share of fires and disasters over its long history so instilling confidence in the local populace is an important matter. The worst disaster occurred in 1923 when Tokyo was hit by a massive earthquake. The Great Kanto Earthquake struck around the lunch hour. The sudden upheaval of a countless stoves and ovens cooking away created an immense fire which claimed the lives of over 100,000 people.


Live action demonstration of firefighters taking care of a building fire

At the closing ceremony, several fire engine trucks parked in a row lift their ladders high into the sky. Then all at once they drop multi-colored streamers while flying the Japanese flag. Firefighters shoot jets of water high overhead as helicopters fly by in tight formation. A perfect ending for even the most jaded of children.

**Dezomeshiki takes place every year on January 6th in Odaiba. The Tokyo Fire Department puts on other demonstrations throughout the year and hikeshi societies do acrobatic performances throughout the year in many parts of Japan.**


A Japanese firefighter from ages past perches on an old ladder

About these ads

March 13, 2008 - Posted by | acrobatics, Dezomeshiki, fire, Fire Department, firefighter, firefighting, hikeshi, japan, japanese history, tokyo, travel

7 Comments »

  1. [...] more information about Dezomeshiki and old Japanese firefighters check out my blog: Dezomeshiki – Firefighting Japanese Style Tags: acrobatics, dezomeshiki, firefighting, japan, tokyo  Print This Post « St. [...]

    Pingback by Dezomeshiki: FireFighting Japanese Style » TravelBlog Archive » Roving Ronin Report | March 13, 2008 | Reply

  2. It’s wonderfull. I Did not know anything about this auntil today. Thanks for you blog. Claudino – Portugal.

    Comment by Claudino Gomes | January 8, 2009 | Reply

  3. Dear Dave,

    I did the standard Google search and came across your article on Japanese firefighters and was wondering if you could tell me if the the following is a myth. Did firefighters used to plant a banner or flag while fighting fires to indicate that the fire will go no further, thereby making the team work to save their fellow firefighter?

    Regards,

    Bill

    Comment by Bill | May 13, 2009 | Reply

  4. That was great! If you are interested in the Fire Service… Firefighting Job Openings; from Entry Firefighter, Promotional Positions, EMT, Paramedic Employment. Helping Firefighters find Jobs, Free Job Postings, Recruitment Tips, Career Advice

    Comment by Fire Career Assistance | October 22, 2009 | Reply

  5. This looks pretty dangerous but interesting

    Comment by Temples of India | February 6, 2011 | Reply

  6. best one

    Comment by Amarnath Yatra | June 28, 2011 | Reply


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 67 other followers

%d bloggers like this: